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Michigan Information Resource Library

About | Child Trafficking and Exploitation and Child Protective Services

Awareness and education are critical to preventing child exploitation and trafficking in Michigan and across the nation. The resources, information, and tools below will help you gain knowledge, know the facts, and get in the fight by mobilizing your community to end the war on children.

Section I: Michigan State Laws

The following is a list of state statutes that relate to human and child trafficking with links and short summaries.

722.603 State child abuse and neglect prevention board; creation; exercise of powers and duties; performance of management functions; appointment and qualifications of executive director; staff
Click To Read: 722.603 State child abuse and neglect prevention board; creation; exercise of powers and duties; performance of management functions; appointment and qualifications of executive director; staff
Summary: This statute provides that, “the state child abuse and neglect prevention board is created as an autonomous agency within the department of management and budget. The state board shall exercise its powers and duties independently of the director of the department of management and budget except that the budget, procurement, and related management function shall be performed by the director of the department of management and budget. It further provides that the state board shall appoint the executive director of the state board. It also requires the executive director shall hire all staff required to exercise the powers and carry out the duties of the state board.”

722.602 Definitions
Click To Read: 722.602 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout Child Abuse and Neglect Prevent Act.

722.604 State board; composition; appointment, qualifications, and terms of public members; chairperson; election of officers and committees; compensation, reimbursement, salaries, and operating expenses
Click To Read: 722.604 State board; composition; appointment, qualifications, and terms of public members; chairperson; election of officers and committees; compensation, reimbursement, salaries, and operating expenses
Summary: This statute provides the members who will compose the state board and outlines the terms that each member shall serve.

722.605 Conducting business at public meetings; notice; availability of writings to the public
Click To Read: 722.605 Conducting business at public meeting; notice; availability of writings to public
Summary: This statute provides that the business which the state board performs be conducted at a public meeting of the state board held in compliance with the open meetings act. It also requires public notice of the time, date and place of the meeting to be given. The statute further states that, “A writing prepared, owned, used, in the possession of, or retained by the state board in the performance of an official function shall be made available to the public in compliance with the freedom of information act.”

722.606 Duties of state board
Click To Read: 722.606 Duties of state board
Summary: This statute outlines the duties of the state board and provides that the state board shall enter into contracts with public or private agencies to fulfill their requirements. However, the statute also states that the state board shall utilize existing state resources and staff of participating departments whenever practicable.

722.607 Recommending changes to governor and legislature
Click To Read: 722.607 Recommending changes to governor and legislature
Summary: This statute provides that, “the state board can recommend to the governor and the legislator changes in state programs, statues, policies, budgets, and standards which will reduce the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve coordination among state agencies that provide prevention services, and improve the condition of children and parents or guardians who are in need of prevention program services.”

722.608 Federal funds, gifts, grants, bequests, and donations; disposition
Click To Read: 722.608 Federal funds, gifts, grants, bequests, and donations; disposition
Summary: This statute provides what the state board may t do as it relates to accepting federal funds, gifts, grants, bequests and donations.

722.609 Authorization for disbursement of trust fund money; purposes; order of preference; limitation
Click To Read: 722.609 Authorization for disbursement of trust fund money; purposes; order of preference; limitation
Summary: This statute provides that the state board may authorize the disbursement of available money from the trust fund, upon legislative appropriations, for purposes listed in the statute.

722.610 Grants to local council; criteria
Click To Read: 722.610 Grants to local council; criteria
Summary: This statute provides that in making grants to a local council, the state board shall consider the degree to which local council meets certain criteria outlined in the statute.

722.1522 Definitions
Click To Read: 722.1522 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms that are used throughout the Child Abduction Prevention Act.

722.1529 Finding of credible risk of imminent wrongful removal of child; ex parte warrant to take physical custody; opportunity for hearing; contents of ex parte warrant; search of databases to determine history of domestic violence, stalking, or child abuse or neglect; service of petition and warrant; enforcement; finding of bad faith; relief under other law of state
Click To Read: 722.1529 Finding of credible risk of imminent wrongful removal of child; ex parte warrant to take physical custody; opportunity for hearing; contents of ex parte warrant; search of databases to determine history of domestic violence, stalking, or child abuse or neglect; service of petition and warrant; enforcement; finding of bad faith; relief under other law of state
Summary: This statute provides that when a court finds that there is a credible risk that the child is imminently likely to be wrongfully removed, the court may issue an ex parte warrant to take physical custody of the child. It further provides what the ex parte warrant will do and affords an opportunity for the respondent to be heard at the earliest possible time after the warrant is executed. The statute also includes that a warrant to take physical custody of a child, issued by the state of Michigan or another state is enforceable throughout the state. It goes on to provide that if the court finds that a petitioner sought an ex parte warrant for the purpose of harassment or in bad faith, the court may award the respondent reasonable attorney fees, costs and expenses.

722.1528 Filing of petition; court order; review of evidence; finding of credible risk of child abduction; entering abduction prevention order; provisions; contents; conditions; preventing imminent abduction; remedies
Click To Read: 722.1528 Filing of petition; court order; review of evidence; finding of credible risk of child abduction; entering abduction prevention order; provisions; contents; conditions; preventing imminent abduction; remedies
Summary: This statute provides guidelines for courts filing an order under this act including an abduction prevention order. It outlines what is to be required in the order and actions the court may take to prevent imminent abduction of a child.

722.1527 Credible risk of child abduction; evidence; hearing; finding that conduct intended to avoid domestic violence or harm
Click To Read: 722.1527 Credible risk of child abduction; evidence; hearing; finding that conduct intended to avoid domestic violence or harm
Summary: This statute provides what the court may consider as evidence that there is a credible risk of a child abduction. It also provides that, “if the court finds during a hearing on a petition that the respondent’s conduct was intended to avoid domestic violence or imminent harm to the child or respondent, the court will not issue an abduction prevention order.”

722.1526 Petition; verification; specification of risk factors; contents
Click To Read: 722.1526 Petition; verification; specification of risk factors; contents
Summary: This statute provides the requirements for filing a petition under this act.

722.1524 Abduction prevention measures in child-custody proceeding; court order; petition; warrant to take physical custody of child
Click To Read: 722.1524 Abduction prevention measures in child-custody proceeding; court order; petition; warrant to take physical custody of child
Summary: This statute provides that, “a court on its own motion may order abduction prevention measures in a child-custody proceeding if the court finds that the evidence establishes a credible risk of abduction of the child.” The statue further provides who can file a petition to seek prevention measures.

400.1501 Definitions
Click To Read: 400.1501 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides the definitions for key terms used throughout the act.

400.1506 Grants or contracts for support of local programs; application by prime sponsor; agreement as condition to award or contract; cost of programs and services; limitation on amount received
Click To Read: 400.1506 Grants or contracts for support of local programs; application by prime sponsor; agreement as condition to award or contract; cost of programs and services; limitation on amount received
Summary: This statute establishes that, subject to the approval of the board, the department may award grants or enter into a contract, using the money in the fund to support local programs to do any of the activities listed in the statute.

400.1502 Domestic and sexual violence prevention and treatment board; creation; appointment, qualifications, and terms of members; vacancy; chairperson; quorum; compensation and expenses
Click To Read: 400.1502 Domestic and sexual violence prevention and treatment board; creation; appointment, qualifications, and terms of members; vacancy; chairperson; quorum; compensation and expenses
Summary: This statute regulates the membership of the domestic and sexual violence prevention and treatment board.

400.1503 Conducting business at public meeting; notice; availability of certain writings to public
Click To Read: 400.1503 Conducting business at public meeting; notice; availability of certain writings to public
Summary: This statute provides that the business which the board may perform is required to be conducted at a public meeting. It further provides that, “a writing prepared, owned, used, in the possession fo, or retained by the board in the performance of an official function shall be made available to the public in compliance with Act No. 442 of the Public Acts of 1976, being sections 15.231 to 15.246 of the Michigan Compiled Laws.

400.1507 Shelter program; funds for establishment; emergency shelter; services
Click To Read: 400.1507 Shelter program; funds for establishment; emergency shelter; services
Summary: This statute provides that a prime sponsor may receive funds under this act to establish or maintain a shelter program for victims of domestic violence and their dependent children. It provides requirements for the services that the shelters must provide.

22.981 Short title; definitions
Click To Read: 22.981 Short title; definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout the statute.

722.982 Foster care independence program; establishment; conditions; services
Click To Read: 722.982 Foster care independence program; establishment; conditions; services
Summary: This statute provides when the department shall establish the foster care independence program to offer education, training, employment and financial support for eligible young adults leaving foster care. It also proves the services the program may offer depending on the availability of funds.

722.983 Services; eligibility; exceptions; services provided to young adults 14 years of age and older; availability of services through 20 years of age; services provided on as-needed basis
Click To Read: 722.983 Services; eligibility; exceptions; services provided to young adults 14 years of age and older; availability of services through 20 years of age; services provided on as-needed basis
Summary: This statute provides when a young adult is eligible for services under this act as well as what makes a young adult ineligible for services.

427.301 Definitions
Click To Read: 427.301 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout the chapter.

427.302 Rental of room to minor
Click To Read: 427.302 Rental of room to minor
Summary: This statue provides that a hotel or a bed and breakfast may refuse to rent or lease a room to a minor who is not emancipated.

427.304 Documentation of age
Click To Read: 427.304 Documentation of age
Summary: This statute provides that a hotel or a bed and breakfast may require that an individual provide documentary evidence confirming the age of an individual renting or leasing a room as well as documentation of emancipation of a minor.

752.972 Definitions
Click To Read: 752.972 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout the Human Trafficking Commission Act.

752.973 Human trafficking commission; establishment; membership; appointment; terms; vacancy; removal; meetings; bylaws; quorum; business conducted at public meeting; writings subject to freedom of information act; compensation; expenses
Click To Read: 752.973 Human trafficking commission; establishment; membership; appointment; terms; vacancy; removal; meetings; bylaws; quorum; business conducted at public meeting; writings subject to freedom of information act; compensation; expenses
Summary: This statute establishes the human trafficking commission within the Department of Attorney General. It also provides the required members for the commission.

752.974 Commission; duties
Click To Read: 752.974 Commission; duties
Summary: This statute provides the duties that the commission is responsible for subject to funding.

752.975 Human trafficking commission fund; creation; administration; deposit of money or other assets; investment; interest and earnings; work project; money in fund at close of fiscal year
Click To Read: 752.975 Human trafficking commission fund; creation; administration; deposit of money or other assets; investment; interest and earnings; work project; money in fund at close of fiscal year
Summary: This statute provides how the human trafficking commission fund is created within the department of the treasury and that the funds will be administered by the Department of the Attorney General. It further provides how the money in the fund may be expanded.

752.982 “Victim” defined
Click To Read: 752.982 “Victim” defined
Summary: This statute provides that victim means, “a victim of a violation of chapter LXVIIA of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.462a to 750.462h.”

752.983 Violation of MCL 750.462a to 750.462h; liability to victim; damages
Click To Read: 752.983 Violation of MCL 750.462a to 750.462h; liability to victim; damages
Summary: This statute provides that a person who violates chapter LXVIIA of the Michigan penal code, 1931 PA 328, MCL 750.462a to 750.462h is liable to the victims for specific listed damages that result from the violation.

752.984 Action to recover damages; statute of limitations
Click To Read: 752.984 Action to recover damages; statute of limitations
Summary: This statute provides that, “an action to recover damages must be filed within 3 years after the last violation that is the subject of the action occurred.”

752.985 Recovery of damages under other laws
Click To Read: 752.985 Recovery of damages under other laws
Summary: This statute provides that, “this act does not affect any right that a victim has to recover damages under other law.”

752.992 Definitions
Click To Read: 752.992 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout the Human Trafficking Health Advisory Board Act.

752.993 Human trafficking health advisory board; creation; membership; appointment; terms; vacancy; removal; chairperson; election of vice-chairperson and officers; meetings; quorum; conducting business at public meeting; writing subject to freedom of information act; compensation; expenses
Click To Read: 752.993 Human trafficking health advisory board; creation; membership; appointment; terms; vacancy; removal; chairperson; election of vice-chairperson and officers; meetings; quorum; conducting business at public meeting; writing subject to freedom of information act; compensation; expenses
Summary: This statute provides the list of required members and when those members shall be appointed. It further outlines when a member may be removed and that members will serve without compensation. The statute also provides that a writing prepared, owned, used, in possession of, or retained by the board in the performance of an official function is subject to the Freedom of Information Act.

752.994 Duties of board
Click To Read: 752.994 Duties of board
Summary: This statute outlines the duties of the Human Trafficking Health Advisory Board.

752.1032 Definitions
Click To Read: 752.1032 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for the key terms used throughout the Human Trafficking Notification Act.

752.1033 Posting of human trafficking notice on certain premises
Click To Read: 752.1033 Posting of human trafficking notice on certain premises
Summary: This statute requires that, “the Department of Transportation post a human trafficking notice on the premises of each rest stop and welcome facility in this state in the manner described in this act.” It also requires that, ” bus or rail transportation services ot the public to post a human trafficking notice on the premises of any station that provides those services.” Each local unit of government that operates a rest stop or welcome facility shall post a human trafficking notice on the premises of that rest stop or welcome facility. It also requires that certain establishments also post a human trafficking notice as required by this act including: “1) Any entity that owns property that has been found by a court to constitute a public nuisance due to acts of prostitution or human trafficking being conducted on the property or arising out of the ownership or use of the property; 2) An adult entertainment establishment; 3) Public airports.”

752.1034 Posting of human trafficking notice; manner
Click To Read: 752.1034 Posting of human trafficking notice; manner
Summary: This statute requires that, “human trafficking notices required under this act be posted in a conspicuous manner clearly visible to the public and employees with each facility operated by an entity described in section 3 that is open to use by the public.”

752.1035 Posting of human trafficking notice; requirements
Click To Read: 752.1035 Posting of human trafficking notice; requirements
Summary: This statute outlines the criteria that each human trafficking notice required under this act must meet when displayed.

752.1036 Notice; sample
Click To Read: 752.1036 Notice; sample
Summary: This statute provides that the Department shall post a sample of the notice on it’s website that is available for downloading for the purposes of this act.

752.1037 Written notice of requirements
Click To Read: 752.1037 Written notice of requirements
Summary: This statute provides that, “the Department shall provide each entity described in section 3 with a written notice of the requirements of this Act. “

752.1038 Applicability of act; appropriation of funds
Click To Read: 752.1038 Applicability of act; appropriation of funds
Summary: This statute provides that, “this act does not apply unless sufficient funds are appropriated to the department to allow it to carry out the duties required under this act.”

752.1039 Failure of entity to comply with act; notice; fine
Click To Read: 752.1039 Failure of entity to comply with act; notice; fine
Summary: This statute provides that, ” if the department determines that an entity described in section 3 has failed to comply with the notice requirements of this act, the department shall notify the entity that it is in violation of this act and provide the entity with 48 hours to come into compliance with this act. This statute also outlines the penalties for a failure to comply with the notice requirements of this act.”

752.1040 Rules
Click To Read: 752.1040 Rules
Summary: This statute allows the Department to promulgate rules in order to implement this act.

752.1062 Definitions
Click to Read: 752.1062 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms that are used throughout Michigan’s Children’s Protection Registry Act.

752.1061 Short title; legislative intent
Click To Read: 752.1061 Short title; legislative intent
Summary: This statute provides the intent of the legislator in creating this Act. “The intent of this act is to provide safeguards to prevent certain messages regarding tobacco, alcohol, pornography, gambling, illegal drugs, and other illegal products from reaching the minor children of this state.”

752.1063 Child protection registry; establishment and operation; registration of contact points; duration; expiration; revocation; renewal; registration by schools and other institutions serving minor children; compliance mechanism; fees; operational date
Click To Read: 752.1063 Child protection registry; establishment and operation; registration of contact points; duration; expiration; revocation; renewal; registration by schools and other institutions serving minor children; compliance mechanism; fees; operational date
Summary: This statute provides that the Department is required to establish and operate, or contract with a qualified third party to establish and operate, the child protection registry. It also requires the Department or a third party administrator to establish procedure to the extent possible, to prevent the use or disclosure of protected contact points as required under section 6.” It further outlines the requirements and procedures for the registry.

752.1064 Children’s protection registry fund; creation; expenditures; reversion to general fund
Click To Read: 752.1064 Children’s protection registry fund; creation; expenditures; reversion to general fund
Summary: This statute creates the Children’s protection registry fund within the state treasury and provides regulations on expanding money from the fund.

752.1065 Prohibited conduct; exceptions; third-party security audits
Click to Read: 752.1065 Prohibited conduct; exceptions; third-party security audits
Summary: This statute prohibits a person from, “sending, causing to be sent, or conspiring with a third party to send a message to a contact point that has been registered for more than 30 calendar days with the department if the primary purpose of the message is to directly or indirectly, advertise or otherwise link to a message that advertises a product or service that a minor is prohibited by law from purchasing, viewing, possessing, participating in, or otherwise receiving.”

752.1066 Release of information; prohibitions; register not subject to freedom of information act
Click To Read: 752.1066 Release of information; prohibitions; register not subject to freedom of information act
Summary: This statute prohibits a person from releasing information concerning persons or providing access to contact points or other information contained on the registry. It further prohibits a person from selling or using the registry for any reason other than to meet the requirements of this act. It also establishes that the registry is not subject to the Freedom of Information Act.

752.1067 Violation of act; penalties
Click To Read: 752.1067 Violation of act; penalties
Summary: This statute provides that a violation of this act is a computer crime and a violation of section 5a of 1979 PA 53, MCL 752.795a, subject to the penalties provided for under sections 6a and 6b of 1979 PA 53, MCL 752.796a and 752.796b.

752.1068 Civil action; attorney fees; remedies; investigation of business transactions; effective date of section
Click To Read: 752.1068 Civil action; attorney fees; remedies; investigation of business transactions; effective date of section
Summary: This state provides when and who may bring a civil action under this Act.

750.13 Taking or enticing any minor under 16 years
Click To Read: 750.13 Taking or enticing any minor under 16 years
Summary: This statute establishes that it is a felony punishable by imprisonment of up to 10 years for enticing a minor who is under 16 from their parent or guardian without their consent for the purpose of prostitution, concubinage, sexual intercourse or marriage.

750.38 Personal Violence or Human Form; Displaying
Click To Read: 750.38 Personal Violence or Human Form; Displaying
Summary: This statute prohibits displaying pictures representing personal violence or human form in an attitude or dress which would be indecent. A person found to have violated this statute is guilty of a misdemeanor.

750.157a Conspiracy to Commit Offense or Legal at in Illegal Manner: Penalty
Click To Read: 750.157a Conspiracy to Commit Offense or Legal act in Illegal Manner: Penalty
Summary: This statute defines conspiracy to commit an offense as, “any person who conspires together with one or more persons to commit an offense prohibited by law, or to commit a legal act in an illegal manner.” It further outlines the punishments for a person found to be guilty of the offense.

750.157c Recruiting, inducing, soliciting, or coercing a minor to commit a felony
Click To Read: 750.157c Recruiting, inducing, soliciting, or coercing a minor to commit a felony
Summary: This statute prohibits, ” a person who is 17 years or older from recruiting, inducing, soliciting or coercing a minor less than 17 years old to commit or attempt to commit an act that would be a felony if committed by an adult.” A violation of this statute is punishable by imprisonment for up to the maximum term authorized by the law outlining the offense or by a fine of up to 3 times the amount authorized by the law for that act.

750.159g “Racketeering” defined
Click To Read: 750.159g “Racketeering” defined
Summary: This statute defines racketeering, “as committing, attempting to commit, conspiring to commit, or aiding or abetting, soliciting, coercing, or intimidating a person to commit an offense for financing gain by obtaining money, property, or any other thing of value, involving any of the statute violations listed in this statute.”

750.349 Kidnapping; Restrain Defined; violation as felony; penalty; other violation arising from same transaction
Click To Read: 750.349 Kidnapping; Restrain Defined; violation as felony; penalty; other violation arising from same transaction
Summary: This statute outlines the crime of kidnapping as, ” person commits the crime of kidnapping if he or she knowingly restrains another person with the intent to do 1 or more of the following: a) hold that person for ransom or reward; b) use that person as a shield or hostage; c) engage in criminal sexual penetration or criminal sexual contact with that person; d) take that person outside this state; e) hold that person in involuntary servitude; f) engage in child sexually abusive activity, as that term is defined in 145c, with that person if they are a minor.” This crime is a felony and punishable by a fine of up to $50,000 and/or imprisonment for life.

750.349b Unlawful imprisonment; circumstances; violation as felony; penalty; other violations
Click To Read: 750.349b Unlawful imprisonment; circumstances; violation as felony; penalty; other violations
Summary: This statute defines unlawful imprisonment as, “a person commits the crime of unlawful imprisonment if he or she knowingly restrains another person under any of the following circumstances: (a) The person is restrained by means of a weapon or dangerous instrument; (b) The restrained person was secretly confined;(c) The person was restrained to facilitate the commission of another felony or to facilitate flight after commission of another felony.” Violation of this statute is a felony punishable by imprisonment for up to 15 years and/or a fine of up to $20,000.

750.350 Leading, taking, carrying away, decoying or enticing away a child under 14; intent; violation as felony; penalty; adoptive or natural parent
Click To Read: 750.350 Leading, taking, carrying away, decoying or enticing away a child under 14; intent; violation as felony; penalty; adoptive or natural parent
Summary: This statute prohibits a person from, “maliciously, forcibly, or fraudulently lead, take, carry away, decoy, or entice away, any child under the age of 14 years, with the intent to detain or conceal the child from the child’s parent or legal guardian, or from the person or persons who have adopted the child, or from any other person having the lawful charge of the child.” A violation of this statute is a felony and is punishable by imprisonment for any term up to a life sentence. However, the statute does note that an adoptive or natural parent of the child shall not be charged with and convicted for a violation under this statute.

750.350a Taking or retaining child by adoptive or natural parent; intent; violation as felony; penalty; restitution for financial expense; effect of pleading or being found guilty; probation; discharge and dismissal; court proceedings open to public; retention of nonpublic record by department of state police; defense
Click To Read: 750.350a Taking or retaining child by adoptive or natural parent; intent; violation as felony; penalty; restitution for financial expense; effect of pleading or being found guilty; probation; discharge and dismissal; court proceedings open to public; retention of nonpublic record by department of state police; defense
Summary: This statute prohibits, “an adoptive or natural parent of a child from taking that child for more than 24 hours with the intent to detain or conceal the child from any other parent or legal guardian of the child who has custody or parenting time rights under a lawful court order at the time of the taking.” It further outlines the punishment for violating this statute.

750.462a Definitions
Click To Read: 750.462a Definitions
Summary: This statute provides the definitions for the key terms used throughout Chapter 462.

750.462b Forced labor or services; prohibition
Click To Read: 750.462b Forced labor or services; prohibition
Summary: This statute prohibits, “any person from knowingly recruiting, enticing, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining an individual for forced labor or services.”

750.462c Holding individuals in debt bondage
Click To Read: 750.462c Holding individual in debt bondage
Summary: This statute prohibits, “any person from knowingly recruiting enticing, harboring, transporting, providing or obtaining an individual for the purpose of holding the individual in debt bondage.”

750.462d Prohibited conduct
Click To Read: 750.462d Prohibited conduct
Summary: This statute prohibits any person from doing either of the following , “1) Knowingly recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain an individual by any means, knowing that individual will be subjected to forced labor or services or debt bondage; 2) Knowingly benefit financially or receive anything of value from participation in an enterprise, as that term is defined in section 159f, if the enterprise has engaged in an act proscribed under this chapter.”

750.462e Forced labor or services; prohibited conduct as it relates to age of minor
Click To Read: 750.462e Forced labor or services; prohibited conduct as it relates to age of minor
Summary: This statute prohibits any person from doing either of the following, regardless of whether the person knows the age of the minor: a) Recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means a minor for commercial sexual activity; b) Recruit, entice, harbor, transport, provide, or obtain by any means a minor for forced labor or services.”

750.462f Violation of MCL 750.462b, 750.462c, and 750.462d; violation of MCL 750.462e; attempting, conspiring, or soliciting another to violate chapter; violation of law arising out of same transaction; consecutive terms; restitution
Click To Read: 750.462f Violation of MCL 750.462b, 750.462c, and 750.462d; violation of MCL 750.462e; attempting, conspiring, or soliciting another to violate chapter; violation of law arising out of same transaction; consecutive terms; restitution
Summary: This statute provides additional factors that could lead to additional punishments for violations of certain statutes within the chapter.

750.462g Testimony of victim; admissibility of expert testimony as to human trafficking victim’s behavior
Click To Read: 750.462g Testimony of victim; admissibility of expert testimony as to human trafficking victim’s behavior
Summary: This statute provides that the testimony of a victim of human trafficking is not required in a prosecution but if the victim testifies, that testimony does not need to be corroborated. This statute further provides that, “expert testimony as to the behavioral patterns of human trafficking victims and the manner in which a human trafficking victim’s behavior may deviate from societal expectations is admissible as evidence in court in a prosecution under this chapter if the expert testimony is otherwise admissible under the rules of evidence and laws of this state.”

750.462h Relevancy of resistance or lack of resistance
Click To Read: 750.462h Relevancy of resistance or lack of resistance
Summary: This statute provides that a victim’s resistance or lack of resistance to the actor is not relevant to the prosecution.

750.448 Soliciting, accosting, or inviting to commit prostitution or immoral act; crime
Click To Read: 750.448 Soliciting, accosting, or inviting to commit prostitution or immoral act; crime
Summary: This statute provides that, ” A person 16 years of age or older who accosts, solicits, or invites another person in a public place or in or from a building or vehicle, by word, gesture, or any other means, to commit prostitution or to do any other lewd or immoral act, is guilty of a crime punishable as provided in section 451.”

750.449 Admitting to place for purpose of prostitution; crime
Click To Read: 750.449 Admitting to place for purpose of prostitution; crime
Summary: This statute provides that, “A person 16 years of age or older who receives or admits or offers to receive or admit a person into a place, structure, house, building, or vehicle for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, or who knowingly permits a person to remain in a place, structure, house, building, or vehicle for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, is guilty of a crime punishable as provided in section 451”

750.449a Engaging services for purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; engaging services with person less than 18 years of age for purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; penalty
Click To Read: 750.449a Engaging services for purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; engaging services with person less than 18 years of age for purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation; penalty
Summary: This statute provides that, “A person who engages or offers to engage the services of another person, not his or her spouse, for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, by the payment in money or other forms of consideration, is guilty of a misdemeanor. A person convicted of violating this section is subject to part 52 of the public health code, 1978 PA 368, MCL 333.5201 to 333.5210. A person who engages or offers to engage the services of another person, who is less than 18 years of age and who is not his or her spouse, for the purpose of prostitution, lewdness, or assignation, by the payment in money or other forms of consideration, is guilty of a crime punishable as provided in section 451.”

750.450 Aiding, assisting, or abetting; penalty
Click To Read: 750.450 Aiding, assisting, or abetting; penalty
Summary: The statute provides that, “A person 16 years of age or older who aids, assists, or abets another person to commit or offer to commit an act prohibited under section 448, 449, or 449a is guilty of a crime punishable as provided in section 451.”

750.451 Violation of MCL 750.448, 750.449, 750.449a(1), 750.450, or 750.462; prior convictions; penalty; prosecution of person under 18 years of age; presumption; report; investigation by department of health and human services; “prior conviction” define
Click To Read: 750.451 Violation of MCL 750.448, 750.449, 750.449a(1), 750.450, or 750.462; prior convictions; penalty; prosecution of person under 18 years of age; presumption; report; investigation by department of health and human services; “prior conviction” defined
Summary: This statute outlines the punishments for violating certain statutes within the chapter if the person is a minor or has a prior conviction.

750.451c Individual as victim of human trafficking violation; applicability of subsection (2); deferred proceedings; determination of court; violation of term or condition of probation; adjudication of guilt; circumstances; discharge and dismissal; proceedings open to public; record; nonpublic record; “human trafficking violation” defined
Click To Read: 750.451c Individual as victim of human trafficking violation; applicability of subsection (2); deferred proceedings; determination of court; violation of term or condition of probation; adjudication of guilt; circumstances; discharge and dismissal; proceedings open to public; record; nonpublic record; “human trafficking violation” defined
Summary: This statute provides that the court is required to discharge a charge of violating certain statutes against an individual if they can prove that their violation was a direct result of being a victim of human trafficking. It outlines the procedures and burden of proof that is required to be met in order to obtain a discharge.

750.452 House of ill-fame or for the purpose of prostitution or lewdness; keeping, maintaining, or operating as a felony; penalty
Click To Read: 750.452 House of ill-fame or for purpose of prostitution or lewdness; keeping, maintaining, or operating as felony; penalty
Summary: This statute provides that a person who “keeps, maintains, or operates, or aids and abets in keeping, maintaining, or operating, a house of ill-fame, bawdy house, or any house or place resorted to for the purpose of prostitution or lewdness is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment for not more than 5 years or by a fine of not more than $5,000.00, or both.”

750.454 Leasing houses for purposes of prostitution; misdemeanor
Click To Read: 750.454 Leasing houses for purposes of prostitution; misdemeanor
Summary: This statute provides that a person who leases any dwelling house knowing that the lessee intends to use it for the purpose of prostitution or other prohibited conduct or who knowingly permits the lessee to use the space for such purpose, is guilty of a misdemeanor. The individual can be sentenced for up to 6 months in prison or a fine of up to $750.

750.455 Certain conduct as felony
Click To Read: 750.455 Certain conduct as felony
Summary: This statute outlines specific conduct related to forcing or procuring people for the purpose of prostitution is a felony that is punishable by up to 20 years imprisonment.

750.457 Accepting, receiving, levying, or appropriating from earnings of person engaged in prostitution
Click To Read: 750.457 Accepting, receiving, levying, or appropriating from earnings of person engaged in prostitution
Summary: This statute provides that it is a felony to knowingly accept, receive, levy or appropriate any money or valuable thing without consideration from the proceeds of the earnings of any person engaged in prostitution.

750.458 Detaining person in house of prostitution for debt; felony
Click To Read: 750.458 Detaining person in house of prostitution for debt; felony
Summary: This statute provides that any person who attempts to detain any person in a house of prostitution because of any debts the person has contracted while living in that house is guilty of a felony and can be sentenced to prison for up to 20 years but no less than 2.

750.459 Transporting person for prostitution; sale of travel services for purposes of prostitution or human trafficking; conduct against minor; felony; “travel services” defined
Click To Read: 750.459 Transporting person for prostitution; sale of travel services for purposes of prostitution or human trafficking; conduct against minor; felony; “travel services” defined
Summary: This statute outlines the punishments for transporting a person for prostitution or offering to sell travel services for the purposes of engaging prostitution or human trafficking.

750.460 Acts committed outside state
Click To Read: 750.460 Acts committed outside state
Summary: This statute provides that it is not a defense to prosecution for a violation under this chapter if that violation was committed outside of the state of Michigan.

750.462 Female 16 years of age or less in house of prostitution; crime
Click To Read: 750.462 Female 16 years of age or less in house of prostitution; crime
Summary: This statute prohibits a person who, for purposes other than prostitution, takes or allows a minor who is 16 years or younger to remain in a house of prostitution

722.1561 Home safety assessment
Click To Read: 722.1561 Home safety assessment
Summary: This statute provides that a family service agency shall conduct a home safety assessment and inspection in accordance with the regulations outlined in the statute.

722.1567 Records; availability; liability; rules prohibited; referral
Click To Read: 722.1567 Records; availability; liability; rules prohibited; referral
Summary: This statute provides that, “A family service agency shall maintain records for each criminal history records check, home safety assessment, and training it conducts under this act for a period of not less than 7 years after the minor child attains 18 years of age. The family service agency shall make the records available to any local, state, or federal authority requesting the records as part of an investigation involving the minor child, parent or guardian, or person in a home in which a minor child is or was hosted according to a power of attorney.”

722.1563 Training for preparing, developing, training, and supporting resource families
Click To Read: 722.1563 Training for preparing, developing, training, and supporting resource families
Summary: This statute provides that the required training that a family service agency shall provide before a minor child is placed in a home according to a power of attorney.

722.1553 Definitions
Click To Read: 722.1553 Definitions
This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout the Safe Families for Children Act.

722.1555 Temporary delegation of parental power; limitations; revocation or withdrawal
Click To Read: 22.1555 Temporary delegation of parental power; limitations; revocation or withdrawal
Summary: This statute provides that a parent or guardian may temporarily delegate to another person his or her powers for the care, custody or property of the minor child for up to 180 days with some exceptions. It further provides the guidelines that must be followed in doing so and notes that a parent or guardian can revoke or withdraw the power of attorney at any time.

722.1557 Recruitment of persons or families by charitable organizations to serve as resource families
Click To Read: 722.1557 Recruitment of persons or families by charitable organizations to serve as resource families
Summary: This statute provides that charitable organizations may recruit persons or families to serve as a resource family. It further provides that they must use the services of a family service agency to assist the organization in obtaining and reviewing criminal history records checks and home safety assessments.

752.952 Definitions
Click To Read: 752.952 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides definitions for key terms used throughout the Sexual Assault Victim’s Access to Justice Act.

752.953 Information and notice to be provided to sexual assault victim
Click To Read: 752.953 Information and notice to be provided to sexual assault victim
Summary: This statute provides what information that a victim of sexual assault is able to obtain from law enforcement within 24 hours after the initial contact between the victim and the law enforcement agency.

752.954 Sexual assault victim’s request for information; requirements
Click To Read: 752.954 Sexual assault victim’s request for information; requirements
Summary:
This statute provides the procedure for the sexual assault witness to request information from investigative law enforcement agency.

752.955 Information provided to sexual assault victim
Click To Read: 752.955 Information provided to sexual assault victim
Summary: This statute provides the information that the sexual assault victim can be provided as long as the information is available and the disclosure does not impede or compromise an ongoing investigation.

752.956 Information about forensic testing results; providing copy to sexual assault victim; informational handout
Click To Read: 752.956 Information about forensic testing results; providing copy to sexual assault victim; informational handout
Summary: This statute provides the forensic information that the sexual assault victim can obtain from law enforcement if it is available and if the disclosure does not impede or compromise an ongoing investigation.

752.957 Cause of action for monetary damages
Click To Read: 752.957 Cause of action for monetary damages
Summary: This statute provides that, “this act does not create a cause of action for monetary damages against the state, a county, a municipality, or any of their agencies, instrumentalities or employees.”

400.1535 Expenditures; limitation; award of grants and contracts; manner; annual audit and report; rules
Click To Read: 400.1535 Expenditures; limitation; award of grants and contracts; manner; annual audit and report; rules
Summary: This statute allows for the board to expand money from the sexual assault victims’ medical forensic intervention and treatment fund. Money in the fund can be expanded for activities outlined in the statute. It further provides that the board shall distribute money by awarding grants and contracts and that the board may require an annual audit of income and expenditures under this section. The board is also required to provide an annual report of incomes and expenditures to the secretary of the senate and the clerk of the house of representatives by February 1st of each year.

400.1533 Sexual assault victims’ medical forensic intervention and treatment fund; creation; deposit of money into fund; interest and earnings; money in fund at close of fiscal year; department of human services as administrator
Click To Read: 400.1533 Sexual assault victims’ medical forensic intervention and treatment fund; creation; deposit of money into fund; interest and earnings; money in fund at close of fiscal year; department of human services as administrator
Summary: This statute establishes that the sexual assault victims’ medical forensic intervention and treatment fund is created within the state treasury and provides regulations for the funds.

400.661 Periodic case reviews
Click To Read: 400.661 Periodic case reviews
Summary: This statute requires, “the department to conduct periodic case reviews not less than once every 180 days to address the status of the youth’s safety, continuing necessity and appropriateness of placement, extent of compliance with the case plan, and projected date by which the youth may no longer require extended foster care services.”

409.102 Definitions
Click To Read: 409.102 Definitions
Summary: This statute defines key terms used throughout Chapter 409.

409.103 Employment of minors; prohibited occupations; minimum age; exceptions and limitations
Click To Read: 409.103 Employment of minor; prohibited occupations; minimum age; exceptions and limitations
Summary: This statute provides the minimum age of employment for minors as well as exceptions and limitations.

409.104 Employment of minor; copy of work permit or temporary permit required; issuance and filing of work permit; duration of temporary permit; oath; return of permit; exception to work permit requirement; evidence of age; exception in subsection (3) inapplicable to other provisions
Click To Read: 409.104 Employment of minor; copy of work permit or temporary permit required; issuance and filing of work permit; duration of temporary permit; oath; return of permit; exception to work permit requirement; evidence of age; exception in subsection (3) inapplicable to other provisions
Summary: This statute provides that a minor cannot be employed in an occupation regulated by this act until the employer has a copy of the minor’s work permit.

409.105 Work permit; application; examination, approval, and filing of papers
Click to read 409.105 Work permit; application; examination, approval, and filing of papers
Summary: This statute outlines the requirements and procedure for approving a minor’s work permit.

409.106 Work permit; form; color; contents; rules
Click To Read: 409.106 Work permit; form; color; contents; rules
Summary: This statute outlines the requirements for how a work permit must be issued and what is required to be included on a valid work permit.

409.107 Revocation of permit; factors; record of refusal, suspension, or revocation; informing minor of appeal process
Click To Read: 409.107 Revocation of permit; factors; record of refusal, suspension, or revocation; informing minor of appeal process
Summary: This statute outlines the circumstances when an issuing officer may revoke, suspend or refuse a work permit to a minor.

409.110 Minor under 16 years; days and hours of employment
Click To Read: 409.110 Minor under 16 years; days and hours of employment
Summary: This statute provides when a minor who is under the age of 16 may work and the maximum amount of time that the minor may work.

409.111 Minor 16 years or older; days and hours of employment; definitions
Click To Read: 409.111 Minor 16 years or older; days and hours of employment; definitions
Summary: This statute provides the days and hours that a minor who is 16 or older may work.

409.112 Meal and rest period
Click To Read: 409.112 Meal and rest period
Summary: This statute provides that a minor cannot be employed for more than 5 hours continuously without a 30 minute break for a meal and rest.

409.112a Employment of minor in occupation involving a cash transaction after sunset or 8 p.m. at fixed location; condition
Click To Read: 409.112a Employment of minor in occupation involving a cash transaction after sunset or 8 p.m. at fixed location; condition
Summary: This statute provides that a minor may not be employed in an occupation that involves a cash transaction after sunset or 8 p.m., whichever is earlier, at a fixed location unless an employer or other employee who is over the age of 18 is present during those hours.

409.113 Posting copy of MCL 409.110, 409.111, and 409.112; time record
Click To Read: 409.113 Posting copy of MCL 409.110, 409.111, and 409.112; time record
Summary: This statute requires employers who employ minors to post copies of section 409.110, 409.111 and 409.112 conspicuously in or about the premises. It further requires the employer to keep a record of the number of hours worked by the minor each day of the week. These records must be kept on file for at least a year.

409.114 Employment of minor in performance by performing arts organization; approval
Click To Read: 409.114 Employment of minor in performance by performing arts organization; approval
Summary: This statute notes that this Act does not prohibit a minor from being employed in a performing arts organization, ” if a letter of approval is obtained from the department of labor by the representative of the arts organization. Approval shall be issued only if the department of labor determines that the employment is not detrimental to the health or personal well-being of the minor, that the minor is adequately supervised, and that the minor’s education is not neglected.”

409.114a Performing in or being subject to child abusive commercial activity
Click To Read: 409.114a Performing in or being subject to child abusive commercial activity
Summary: This statute prohibits a minor from performing or being the subject of a child abusive commercial activity.

409.115 Employment of minors in establishment manufacturing, distributing, or selling alcoholic beverages
Click To Read: 409.115 Employment of minor in establishment manufacturing, distributing, or selling alcoholic beverages
Summary: This statutes provides that, ” a work permit must not be issued in authorizing the employment of a minor who is 16 years old or older in connection with the part of the establishment where alcoholic beverages are manufactured, distributed or sold unless the sale of food or other goods is at least 50% of the total gross receipts. It further states that the act does not prohibit issuing work permits for 14 and 15 year olds to be employed in establishments that sell alcohol if the sale of food or other goods is at least 50% of the total gross receipts. It does prohibit minors aged 14-15 from being employed in, about, or in connection with that part of the establishment where alcoholic beverages are consumed or sold for consumption on the premises.”

409.116 Exemption; minor 16 years of age completing requirements for graduation or high school equivalency; minor 17 years of age passing general educational development test; duty of employer
Click To Read: 409.116 Exemption; minor 16 years of age completing requirements for graduation or high school equivalency; minor 17 years of age passing general educational development test; duty of employer
Summary: This act does not prohibit minors aged 16 or older who have completed the high school requirements from being employed. However, the employer must keep a copy of certification from the school that the minor attended certifying that they have completed their graduation or a copy of the minor’s high school equivalency test.

409.118 Exemption; minor 14 years of age employed under agreement or contract between employer and governing body of school district, public school academy, or nonpublic school
Click To Read: 409.118 Exemption; minor 14 years of age employed under agreement or contract between employer and governing body of school district, public school academy, or nonpublic school
Summary: This statute provides an exception to this act for minors aged 14 or older if, “a written agreement or contract is entered into between the employer and the governing body of the school district, public school academy, or non public school at which the minor is enrolled.”

409.119 Exemptions generally; hours of work
Click To Read: 409.119 Exemptions generally; hours of work
Summary: This statute provides general exceptions to this Act that allow minors to participate in certain activities.

419.301 Minors between 16 and 18; legal employment; permit or certificate
Click To Read: 419.301 Minors between 16 and 18; legal employment; permit or certificate
Summary: This statute outlines when a minor who is over the age of 16 but less than 18 is legally employed.

Section II: Michigan County-Local Laws

The following is a list of the state’s largest cities and/or counties and their local laws related to human and child trafficking with links and short summaries.

Prohibition of Conversion Therapy on Minors

9-701 Purpose
Click To Read: 9-701 Purpose
Summary: This ordinance provides the purpose and intent behind the prohibition.

9-702 Definitions
Click To Read: 9-702 Definitions
Summary: This ordinance provides definitions for key terms used throughout the chapter.

9-703 Prohibition
Click To Read: 9-703 Prohibition
Summary: This ordinance makes it unlawful for any provider to engage or attempt to engage in conversion therapy on a minor.

9-704 Penalties and Enforcement
Summary: Click To Read: 9-704 Penalties and Enforcement
This ordinance provides penalties for violating this chapter.

9-705 Private Actions for Damages or Injunctive Relief
Click To Read: 9-705 Private Actions for Damages or Injunctive Relief
Summary: This ordinance establishes that an individual may, to the extent allowed by law, bring a civil action for injunctive relief and/or damages for a person who violates this chapter.

Disorderly Conduct

9:62 Acts Prohibited
Click To Read: 9:62 Acts Prohibited
Summary: This ordinance provides prohibited acts and penalties for committing a prohibited act including soliciting or accosting anyone for the purpose of prostitution in a public place.

9:65 Loitering
Click To Read: 9:65 Loitering
Summary: This ordinance prohibits, ” loitering on a public streets, sidewalks or premises of a public building under the circumstances that warrant alarm for the safety or health of any person or property in the vicinity.” It further provides circumstances that can be used in determining whether alarm is warranted.

9:67 Conduct in Parking Areas
Click To Read: 9:67 Conduct in Parking Areas
Summary: This ordinance prohibits certain conduct in a public parking area or structure.

9:68 Domestic Violence
Click To Read: 9:68 Domestic Violence
Summary: This ordinance provides regulations surrounding domestic violence including regulations and when a person can be arrested.

Sec. 5-12-1 Purpose and Scope
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-1 Purpose and Scope
Summary: This ordinance provides the purpose for regulating sexually oriented businesses to, “promote the health, safety and general welfare of the people of the City and to establish reasonable and uniform regulations to prevent the deleterious secondary effects of sexually-oriented business within the City.”

Sec. 5-12-2 Definitions
Click to Read: Sec. 5-12-2 Definitions
Summary: This ordinance provides definitions for key terms used throughout section 5-12.

Section 5-12-3 Criminal Violations and Penalties; Enforcement of Civil and Administrative Remedies Permitted
Click To Read: Section 5-12-3 Criminal Violations and Penalties; Enforcement of Civil and Administrative Remedies Permitted
Summary: This ordinance provides permitted penalties for violating this article.

Section 5-12-4 Inspections of Premises by Police Department and Other Authorized City Departments; Person in Charge
Click To Read: Section 5-12-4 Inspections of Premises by Police Department and Other Authorized City Departments; Person in Charge
Summary: This ordinance governs when sexually oriented businesses are required to allow members of the Police Department or other authorized individuals to enter the premises for reasonable inspection. It further provides licensing regulations for those who wish to operate a sexually oriented business.

Sec. 5-12-5 Hours of Operation
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-5 Hours of Operation
Summary: This ordinance prohibits a sexually oriented business from being open on any day for business between the hours 2:00 a.m. and 7:30 a.m.

Sec. 5-12-6 Regulations Pertaining to Exhibition of Sexually-Explicit Films on the Licensed Premises
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-6 Regulations Pertaining to Exhibition of Sexually-Explicit Films on the Licensed Premises
Summary: This ordinance provides regulations for operators of sexually-oriented businesses that exhibit sexually explicit films on the premises are required to comply with.

Sec. 5-12-7 Loitering Prohibited; Exterior Monitoring and Lighting Requirements; Interior Lighting Requirements
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-7 Loitering Prohibited; Exterior Monitoring and Lighting Requirements; Interior Lighting Requirements
Summary: This ordinance places a duty on operators or sexually oriented business to comply with lighting and monitoring requirements established by this ordinance. It further places a duty on operators to conspicuously place signs stating that loitering is not permitted on the premises.

Sec. 5-12-8 Certain Conduct Prohibited in an Adult Cabaret
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-8 Certain Conduct Prohibited in an Adult Cabaret
Summary: This ordinance provides what conduct is prohibited at adult cabarets.

Sec. 5-12-9 Operator Responsibility for Violations of Employees and Patrons; Intent Requirement for Criminal Liability and Defense Thereof
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-9 Operator Responsibility for Violations of Employees and Patrons; Intent Requirement for Criminal Liability and Defense Thereof
Summary: This ordinance provides that, “acts that constitute grounds for suspension or revocation of the employee’s license by employee may be imputed to the sexually oriented business license for purposes of finding a violation of this article or for purposes of license denial, suspension, or revocation, only where an officer, director, or general partner, or person who managed, supervised, or controlled the operation of the business premises, knowingly or recklessly allowed such act to occur on the premises.”

Sec. 5-12-21 Required; Application
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-21 Required; Application
Summary: This ordinance requires a person to obtain a license before operating a sexually-oriented business within the City as well as the application process and requirements for obtaining a license.

Sec. 5-12-25 Issuance of Temporary License; Issuance of Denial of Annual License; Notice and Appeal; Posting of License
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-25 Issuance of Temporary License; Issuance of Denial of Annual License; Notice and Appeal; Posting of License
Summary: This ordinance provides gounds for The Business License Center to deny a license for a sexually-oriented business.

Sec. 5-12-29 Suspension or Revocation; Hearing Procedure for Denial, Suspension, or Revocation
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-29 Suspension or Revocation; Hearing Procedure for Denial, Suspension, or Revocation
Summary: This ordinance provides conditions for the authorities to issue a written notice of intent to suspend or revoke a sexually-oriented business license.

Sec. 5-12-53 Issuance of License: Clearances; Denial
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-53 Issuance of License: Clearances; Denial
Summary: This ordinance provides the circumstances for The Police Department to deny an annual sexually-oriented business employee license to an applicant.

Sec. 5-12-51 Required; Application
Click To Read: Sec. 5-12-51 Required; Application
Summary: This ordinance provides that it is unlawful for a person to be employed in a sexually oriented business in the City without a valid sexually-oriented business employee license with some exceptions. It further provides procedures and requirements for applicants.

Sec. 29-3-3 Effect of Article on State Laws Relative to Employment of Minors
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-3 Effect of Article on State Laws Relative to Employment of Minors
Summary: This ordinance provides that, “nothing in this article shall be construed to conflict with state laws relative to the employment of minors.”

Sec. 29-4-3 Exceptions to Article
Click To Read: Sec. 29-4-3 Exceptions to Article
Summary: This ordinance provides exceptions to this article.

Sec. 29-3-11 Presence of Minors on Public Streets, Playgrounds, and Other Public Prohibited During Certain Times
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-11 Presence of Minors on Public Streets, Playgrounds, and Other Public Prohibited During Certain Times
Summary: This ordinance establishes a general curfew for minors but provides different curfew hours for minors aged 15 years old and under and minors between the ages of 16-17.

Sec. 29-3-12 Presence of Minors in Arcades, Bowling Alleys, Restaurants, theaters, and Other Places of Amusement or Entertainment During Restricted Times Prohibited
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-12 Presence of Minors in Arcades, Bowling Alleys, Restaurants, theaters, and Other Places of Amusement or Entertainment During Restricted Times Prohibited
Summary: This ordinance prohibits minors from being in arcades, bowling alleys, restaurants, theaters or other places of amusement or entertainment during curfew periods.

Sec. 29-3-13 Minors 17 Years of age and Under Prohibited in Billard or Pool Halls: Exceptions
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-13 Minors 17 Years of age and Under Prohibited in Billard or Pool Halls: Exceptions
Summary: This ordinance prohibits a minor under the age of 17 from being in or playing billards or pools in a billiard or pool hall. It further prohibits a minor who is 17 years old from being in or playing billards or pool in a billard or pool hall during curfew periods.

Sec. 29-3-31 Presence of Minors Under 16 Years of Age in Arcades, Bowling Alleys, Restaurants, Theaters, or Other Public Places of Amusement or Entertainment During School Hours Prohibited
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-31 Presence of Minors Under 16 Years of Age in Arcades, Bowling Alleys, Restaurants, Theaters, or Other Public Places of Amusement or Entertainment During School Hours Prohibited
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any minor under the age of 16 or who is enrolled in a day school program to be in certain public places.

Sec. 29-3-32 Presence of Minors Under 16 Years of Age in Unsupervised Public Places During School Hours Prohibited
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-32 Presence of Minors Under 16 Years of Age in Unsupervised Public Places During School Hours Prohibited
Summary: This ordinance prohibits minors under the age of 16 from remaining in unsupervised public places during school hours.

Sec. 29-3-71 Responsibility of Owners, Operators, and Licensees for Compliance with this Article
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-71 Responsibility of Owners, Operators, and Licensees for Compliance with this Article
Summary: This ordinance provides the responsibility of owners, operators, and licensees for compliance with this article.

Sec. 29-3-74 Parent or Legal Guardian Responsible for Compliance with this Article
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-74 Parent or Legal Guardian Responsible for Compliance with this Article
Summary: This ordinance makes it unlawful for a parent or legal guardian to allow a minor to violate this article.

Sec. 29-3-75 Aiding and Abetting Violations of this Article
Click To Read: Sec. 29-3-75 Aiding and Abetting Violations of this Article
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person from aiding, assisting or abetting a minor to violate this article.

Sec. 31-5-13 Keeping of House of Assignation or Prostitution, Gaming House, or Disorderly business or House Prohibited
Click To Read: Sec. 31-5-13 Keeping of House of Assignation or Prostitution, Gaming House, or Disorderly business or House Prohibited
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person from keeping any house as a of prostitution or other prohibited purposes.

Sec. 31-5-14 Leasing Building for Prohibited Purposes
Click To Read: Sec. 31-5-14 Leasing Building for Prohibited Purposes
Summary: This statute prohibits any person from knowingly leasing a building for prohibited purposes including prostitution.

Sec. 31-5-7 Loitering Generally
Click To Read: Sec. 31-5-7 Loitering Generally
Summary: This statute prohibits any person who has been told to move on by an officer from continuing to loiter in any public place. It defines loitering as, “the act of standing or being idle in or about any street, sidewalk, overpass, or public place so as to hinder or impede, or tend to hinder or impede, or obstruct the passage of pedestrians or vehicles.”

Sec. 31-7-3 Indecent or Obscene Conduct
Click To Read: Sec. 31-7-3 Indecent or Obscene Conduct
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person from engaging in indecent or obscene conduct on any property in or adjacent to any building occupied as school.

Sec. 31-7-4. – Unauthorized persons not to enter or remain in school buildings
Click To Read: Sec. 31-7-4. – Unauthorized persons not to enter or remain in school buildings
Summary: This ordinance prohibits unauthorized persons from entering into or remaining in school buildings.

Sec. 9.231 Minors Under Twelve
Click To Read: Sec. 9.231 Minors Under Twelve
Summary: This ordinance establishes a curfew for minors who are under the age of twelve between 10:00 p.m. and 6: 00 a.m. unless they are with a parent or legal guardian.

Sec. 9.232 Minors Under Fifteen
Click To Read: Sec. 9.232 Minors Under Fifteen
Summary: This ordinance establishes a curfew for minors who are under the age of 15 between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. unless they are accompanied by a parent, guardian or adult over the age of 21 who has been delegated by the parent to accompany the child.

Sec. 9.233 Minors Under Seventeen
Click To Read: Sec. 9.233 Minors Under Seventeen
Summary: This ordinance establishes a curfew for minors who are under the age of 17 between the hours of 12:00 midnight and 6:00 am except if the minor is with a parent, guardian or adult over the age of 21 who has been delegated by the parent to accompany the child.

Sec. 9.234 Aiding or Abetting Violation
Click To Read: Sec. 9.234 Aiding or Abetting Violation
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person who is 17 years old or older from assisting, aiding, abetting or encouraging any minor to violate the curfew provisions in these sections.

Sec. 9.235 Parents, Guardians, Etc.
Click To Read: Sec. 9.235 Parents, Guardians, Etc.
Summary: This ordinance prohibits parents, guardians, or other persons having legal care and custody of a minor who is under the age of 17 to knowingly allow any minor in their care to violate the curfew statutes.

Sec. 9.237 Parental or Guardian Neglect
Click To Read: Sec. 9.237 Parental or Guardian Neglect
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any parent or guardian from failing to exercise a sufficient or reasonable control over the minor in order to prevent them from committing a violation of State Law or City of
Grand Rapids Ordinance.

9.702 Legislative Findings with Respect to Drug Use and Prostitution or Soliciting for Prostitution
Click To Read: 9.702 Legislative Findings with Respect to Drug Use and Prostitution or Soliciting for Prostitution
Summary: This ordinance provides that the City commission determines that whenever property is repeated used for purposes of prostitution, soliciting of prostitution or other prohibited acts, a public nuisance may result.

Sec.9.703 Authority for Declaration of a Public Nuisance
Click To Read: Sec.9.703 Authority for Declaration of a Public Nuisance
Summary: This ordinance provides that the City Commission has the authority to declare by resolution that property is a public nuisance and order that the nuisance be abated.

Sec. 9.704 Procedure for Declaration of a Public Nuisance
Click To Read: Sec. 9.704 Procedure for Declaration of a Public Nuisance
Summary: This ordinance provides the procedure for declaring a public nuisance.

Sec. 9.705 Abatement of Nuisance and Costs
Click To Read: Sec. 9.705 Abatement of Nuisance and Costs
Summary: This ordinance outlines the abatement process when the City Commission determines that property is a public nuisance.

Sec. 9.707 Presumption of Public Nuisance Prostitution or Soliciting for Prostitution
Click To Read: Sec. 9.707 Presumption of Public Nuisance Prostitution or Soliciting for Prostitution
Summary: This ordinance provides the conditions for when the City Commission may find that a public nuisance exists as it relates to prostitution.

Sec. 9.710 Posting and Listing of Public Nuisances
Click To Read: Sec. 9.710 Posting and Listing of Public Nuisances
Summary: This ordinance requires that the City Clerk shall maintain a list of properties that have been declared public nuisances as well as provides the notice requirements for those properties.

Sec. 9.814 Parental Duties
Click To Read: Sec. 9.814 Parental Duties
Summary: The ordinance provides duties for parents within the city.

Sec. 9.813 Definitions
Click To Read: Sec. 9.813 Definitions
Summary: This ordinance provides definitions for key terms used throughout the chapter.

Sec. 9.815 Aiding and Abetting Delinquent Acts
Click To Read: Sec. 9.815 Aiding and Abetting Delinquent Acts
Summary: This ordinance provides that it is a misdemeanor for any person to aid, abet, encourage, contribute towards or cause any minor to become delinquent or to come under the jurisdiction of the juvenile division.

Sec. 9.817 Penalties
Click To Read: Sec. 9.817 Penalties
Summary: This ordinance provides the penalties for any person who violates this Chapter.

30-2 Intent
Click To Read: 30-2 Intent
Summary: This ordinance provides the intent for regulating massage therapy business activity around the city. It states that, “The requirements are designed and intended to prevent illegal massage, human trafficking, prostitution, and related crimes without hindering legitimate massage establishments and their massage therapists.” It further states that, “The City Council recognizes that human trafficking is a significant problem in the United States, and it can involve the use of massage establishments or massage activities as a front where victims are forced into involuntary servitude, deceived into debt bondage, and forced against their will to perform sex acts. Statistics compiled by the federal government have ranked human trafficking only behind drugs and arms trafficking as the most profitable criminal activity. More than 80% of victims are female, and 80% of trafficking involves sexual exploitation. Physical injury and disease are often consequences of human trafficking, and many victims are under the age of 18. For these reasons and more, the adoption of ordinance provisions in order to assist with detecting and preventing human trafficking is warranted. “

30-3 Definitions
Click To Read: 30-3 Definitions
Summary: This ordinance provides definitions for key terms used throughout the chapter.

30-4 License Required
Click To Read: 30-4 License Required
Summary: This ordinance establishes that, “it is a violation of this ordinance for any person to own or operate a massage establishment including any school, without a valid license.”

30-9A Regular Inspections: Sanitation and Safety Requirements
Click To Read: 30-9A Regular Inspections: Sanitation and Safety Requirements
Summary: This ordinance provides that all premises used by a license under this chapter are public places and will be periodically inspected by authorized representatives. It further provides the minimum standards that the establishments are required to maintain.

30-10 License Required
Click To Read: 30-10 License Required
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person from practicing as a massage therapist, employee, instructor unless he or she has a valid license issued by the State of Michigan.

30-11 Use of Massage Therapist License
Click To Read: 30-11 Use of Massage Therapist License
Summary: This ordinance provides that massage therapist licenses must be conspicuously displayed on a wall of the establishment where the therapist practices. It further provides regulations surrounding licensed therapists including what they are not allowed to use their license for.

30-13 Suspension of License
Click To Read: 30-13 Suspension of License
Summary: This ordinance provides when a license can be suspended.

30-14 Revocation of Licenses
Click To Read: 30-14 Revocation of Licenses
Summary: This ordinance provides when a license can be revoked.

30-16 Exemptions and Additional Licensing Requirements
Click To Read: 30-16 Exemptions and Additional Licensing Requirements
Summary: This ordinance provides exemptions for certain licensing provisions for certain establishments but also provides additional licensing requirements for massage therapists.

34-1 Exemptions From Chapter
Click To Read: 34-1 Exemptions From Chapter
Summary: This ordinance provides exemptions for certain individuals who are disseminating material that may considered obscene if they are acting in certain capacities.

34-2 Specified Sexual Activities Defined
Click To Read: 34-2 Specified Sexual Activities Defined
Summary: This ordinance defines specified sexual activities as, “(1) Human genitals in a state of sexual stimulation or arousal;(2) Acts of masturbation, sexual intercourse or sodomy, whether engaged in alone, between members of the same or opposite sex or between humans and animals or humans and inanimate objects;(3) Erotic touching of human genitals, pubic region, buttock or female breast;(4) Sexually explicit or erotic nudity.

34-3 Publication, Sale, and the Like of Obscene Material
Click To Read: 34-3 Publication, Sale, and the Like of Obscene Material
Summary: This ordinance provides that, “Any person who knowingly or willfully publishes, gives away, distributes, shows or offers either to sell, lend, give away, distribute, show or has in his or her possession with intent to either sell, lend, give away, distribute, show or advertise in any manner or who otherwise knowingly offers for either loan, gift, sale or distribution any obscene book, magazine, pamphlet, newspaper, phonograph record, picture, photograph, motion picture film, figure, image, wire or tape recording or any written, printed or recorded matter of a character which is distinguished or characterized by its substantial emphasis on matter depicting, describing or relating to specified sexual activities, as defined in § 34-2 and which meets the test for obscenity, as defined in § 34-4, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and, upon conviction, shall be punished as provided in § 1-9 of this Code.” It further provides what is necessary to show a prima facie case of possession with intent to sell, lend, give away, distribute or show the object.

34-4 Test to be Applied to Determine Obscenity
Click To Read: 34-4 Test to be Applied to Determine Obscenity
Summary: This ordinance provides the test used to determine what content is obscene.

34-6 Sale or Distribution of Obscene Material to Minors
Click To Read: 34-6 Sale or Distribution of Obscene Material to Minors
Summary: This ordinance provides that anyone who knowingly distributes or imports obscene materials for the purpose of selling or distributing them to minors shall be punished in accordance with ordinance 1-9 of this code.

1-9 General Penalty
Click To Read: 1-9 General Penalty
Summary: This ordinance provides penalties for those who violate certain ordinances.

Minors

35-81 Curfew
Click To Read: 35-81 Curfew
Summary: This ordinance establishes and regulates curfews for minors of different ages.

35-82 Aiding or Abetting Violations
Click To Read: 35-82 Aiding or Abetting Violations
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person from aiding or abetting a minor under the age of 17 in violating this article.

35-101 Attempts: Accessory; Conspiracy; Aiding and Abetting
Click To Read: 35-101 Attempts: Accessory; Conspiracy; Aiding and Abetting
Summary: This ordinance provides that, “Any person who shall attempt to commit, act as an accessory to the commission of, or conspire to commit a misdemeanor offense prohibited by this Code shall be subject to the penalties set forth in § 1-9 of the Code.” It further provides that, “Every person concerned in the commission of an offense, whether he or she directly commits the act constituting the offense or procures, counsels, aids, or abets in its commission, shall be punished as if he or she had directly committed such offense.”

Sexually Oriented Businesses

Sec. 6-276 Purpose and Finding
Click To Read: Sec. 6-276 Purpose and Finding
Summary: This ordinance provides the purpose and findings behind the regulations of sexually oriented businesses.

Sec. 6-284 License Required
Click to Read: Sec. 6-284 License Required
Summary: This ordinance provides the required licenses for those running sexual oriented businesses and their employees.

Sec. 6-285 Issuance of License
Click To Read: Sec. 6-285 Issuance of License
Summary: This ordinance provides the situations when the City Clerk can deny issuing a license for a sexually oriented business or an employee license.

Sec. 6-287 Inspection
Click To Read: Sec. 6-287 Inspection
Summary: This ordinance provides that sexually oriented businesses and employees are required to permit occasional inspections for the purpose of ensuring compliance with the regulations of this article.

Sec. 6-288 Transfer of License
Click To Read: Sec. 6-288 Transfer of License
Summary: This ordinance prohibits a licensee from transferring his or her license to another or from a licensee to operate a sexually oriented business to operate in any other place other than the address designated on the application.

Sec. 6-289 Expiration of Licensee
Click To Read: Sec. 6-289 Expiration of Licensee
Summary: This ordinance provides when sexually oriented business licenses expire and when an application for renewal shall be filed.

Sec. 6-298 Revocation
Click To Read: Sec. 6-298 Revocation
Summary: This ordinance provides when the city clerk can issue a letter of intent to revoke a sexually oriented business license or sexually oriented business employee license.

Sec. 6-305 Hours of Operation
Click To Read: Sec. 6-305 Hours of Operation
Summary: This ordinance prohibits a sexually oriented except adult motels business from being open between the hours of midnight and 6:00 a.m.

Sec. 6-306 Regulations Pertaining to Exhibition of Sexually Explicit Films on Premises
Click To Read: Sec. 6-306 Regulations Pertaining to Exhibition of Sexually Explicit Films on Premises
Summary: This ordinance provides regulations for showing sexually explicit films on the premises of certain sexually oriented businesses.

Sec. 6-307 Loitering and Exterior Lighting and Monitoring Requirements
Click To Read: Sec. 6-307 Loitering and Exterior Lighting and Monitoring Requirements
Summary: This ordinance places a duty on the operator of sexually oriented business to take certain measures specified in the ordinance to prevent loitering on the property and makes it unlawful for a person to knowingly fila to fulfill that duty.

Sec. 6-308 Prohibited Activities
Click To Read: Sec. 6-308 Prohibited Activities
Summary: This ordinance prohibits certain conduct in sexually oriented businesses.

Sec. 6-309 Prohibition Against Minors in a Sexually Oriented Business
Click To Read: Sec. 6-309 Prohibition Against Minors in a Sexually Oriented Business
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any person from knowingly allowing a minor to be on the premises of a sexually oriented business.

Sec. 6-314 Penalties and Enforcement
Click To Read: Sec. 6-31`4 Penalties and Enforcement
Summary: This ordinance provides penalties for any person who violates or fails to comply with this article and enforcement measures.

Sec. 6-322 Conflicting Code Provisions Repealed
Click To Read: Sec. 6-322 Conflicting Code Provisions Repealed
Summary: This ordinance provides that any provisions in the City of Warren Code of Ordinances that is specifically in conflict with any provision in this ordinance is deemed inoperative.

Hotels

Sec. 17-82 Occupancy of Rooms by Minors
Click To Read: Sec. 17-82 Occupancy of Rooms by Minors
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any licensee, his agent, servant or employee to allow any minor who is under the age of 17 to be housed in any establishment that is licensed under this article without the consent or knowledge of the parent or legal guardian unless they notify the police of the presence of the presence of the minor.

Sec. 17-83 Hotels and Motels to Comply with the Housing Act of State and Other Rules and Regulations
Click To Read: Sec. 17-83 Hotels and Motels to Comply with the Housing Act of State and Other Rules and Regulations
Summary: This ordinance requires every hotel and motel to comply with the housing act of the State of Michigan, the city ordinances and all rules established under this article.

Sec. 17-78 Register Required; use of Fictitious Names Prohibited
Click To Read: Sec. 17-78 Register Required; use of Fictitious Names Prohibited
Summary: This ordinance requires every licensee and their employees to maintain a register of the time of arrival, the correct name of every guest as well as the home address and city of each guest and the number of the spaces assigned. It further provides that this registry is open for inspection to police and fire officers on official business. It further places a duty on the licensee or their employees to notify the police if they have reason to believe that someone has used a false name.

Massage and Spa Establishments

Sec. 19-4 Massage and Spa Establishments-Licenses Required
Click To Read: Sec. 19-4 Massage and Spa Establishments-Licenses Required
Summary: This ordinance establishes that it unlawful for anyone to operate a massage/spa establishment without. valid license issued by the Clerk. It further provides that it is unlawful for any person to operate a message/spa establishment unless every therapist has a valid license issued by the state.

Sec. 19-5 Licenses to be Displayed
Click To Read: Sec. 19-5 Licenses to be Displayed
Summary: This ordinance required that a massage/spa license be displayed in an open and conspicuous place in the lobby or school at all times .

Sec. 19-6 Accommodating Two or More Patrons
Click To Read: Sec. 19-6 Accommodating Two or More Patrons
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any massage/spa establishment from accommodating two or more patrons unless they knowingly and voluntarily request so and they execute a consent form.

Sec. 19-7 Responsibility of Employer
Summary: Click To Read: Sec. 19-7 Responsibility of Employer
This ordinance provides that, “it is unlawful for any operator of a message or spa establishment to permit or allow any employee, student, agent, therapist or any person to violate this chapter on the premises of the establishment.”

Sec. 19-9 Access and Inspections
Click To Read: Sec. 19-9 Access and Inspections
Summary: This ordinance provides that all establishments subject to this chapter are public places that are open for inspection by authorized city officials for the purpose of enforcing any of the provisions of this chapter; other ordinances or regulations of the city relating to the public health, safety and welfare; or state law. It further provides that any authorized official may enter into and inspect the establishment at reasonable times during business hours or when the premises are occupied by employees/the owner if it is necessary to perform their duties or preserve the peace.

Sec. 19-10 Closing Hours
Click To Read: Sec. 19-10 Closing Hours
Summary: This ordinance prohibits message establishments from being kept open between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m.

Sec. 19-12 Cleanliness of Employees
Click To Read: Sec. 19-12 Cleanliness of Employees
Summary: This ordinance provides the standard of cleanliness for employees.

Sec. 19-13 Message Equipment
Click To Read: Sec. 19-13 Message Equipment
Summary: This ordinance prohibits any beds, mattresses, cots or other sleeping equipment from being permitted at the establishment.

Sec. 19-14 List of Employees; Employee Information
Click To Read: Sec. 19-14 List of Employees; Employee Information
Summary: This ordinance requires establishments to keep a list of names and addresses of all employees and requires that this list be down to authorized city officials upon request. It also requires that these records be kept for a minimum of two years.

Sec. 19-15 Keeping of Records
Click To Read: Sec. 19-15 Keeping of Records
Summary: This ordinance provides what records that operators of establishments under this article are required to maintain and the required proof of identity for patrons of the establishments. It further provides that licensed physical therapists maintain a legible client record for each client which reflects their treatment.

Sec. 19-16 Clothing of Employees and Other Persons
Click To Read: Sec. 19-16 Clothing of Employees and Other Persons
Summary: This ordinance requires that all employees and other persons on the premises be completely clothed. It defines completely clothed as, “having on the upper portion of the body appropriate undergarments and either a blouse or shirt which shall cover all the upper body, including the torso, excluding the arms and neck, and shall mean having on the lower body appropriate undergarments plus either pants or a skirt, and said pants or skirt must cover from the waist down to a point at least two (2) inches above the knee. All clothes worn in compliance with this chapter shall be entirely non-transparent.”

Sec. 19-17 Facilities Necessary
Click To Read: Sec. 19-17 Facilities Necessary
Summary: This ordinance provides that no license for a massage establishment will be issued unless an inspection by the city reveals that the establishment has complied with the requirements outlined in this ordinance, including posting and maintaining a copy of the human trafficking notice as set forth in MCL 752.1035 as amended.

Sec. 19-18 Supervision
Click To Read: Sec. 19-18 Supervision
Summary: This ordinance provides that each message establishment, spa or school have an owner, manager, or supervisor on the premises at all hours that the establishment is open to the public and provides for regulations for when an establishment violates this requirement.

Sec. 19-19 Message Establishments as a School of Massage
Click To Read: Sec. 19-19 Message Establishments as a School of Massage
Summary: This ordinance provides that massage schools are governed by all of the terms under this article and must comply with all requirements set for in MCL 333.17951 et seq.,333.16148 and any other regulations required by law.

Sec. 19-41 Unlawful Activities
Click To Read: Sec. 19-41 Unlawful Activities
Summary: This ordinance provides what unlawful activities are prohibited from being conducted by person in a massage or spa establishment.

Sec. 19-42 Exposure of Genitals, Pubic Area, Etc
Click To Read: Sec. 19-42 Exposure of Genitals, Pubic Area, Etc.
Summary: This ordinance prohibits a massage therapist or student from messaging a patron whose genitals are exposed during treatment and prohibits a patron from exposing his or her genitals, pubic hair, anus or the areola/nipple to another person on the premises.

Sec. 19-63 Suspension
Click To Read: Sec. 19-63 Suspension
Summary: This ordinance provides when a license issued under this ordinance may be suspended and the regulations around suspending a license.

Sec. 19-64 Revocation
Click To Read: Sec. 19-64 Revocation
Summary: This ordinance provides when a license issued under this ordinance may be revoked and the regulations around revoking a license.

Offenses Against the Person

Sec. 22-43
Click To Read: Sec. 22-43
Summary: This ordinance provides that, “is is unlawful for a person of sufficient ability to refuse or neglect to support his or her family.”

Sec. 22-42 Domestic Assault
Click To Read: Sec. 22-42 Domestic Assault
Summary: This ordinance defines and provides regulations around domestic assault including regulations for police reports, police departments, and penalties.

Minors

Sec. 22-50 Curfew For Minors
Click To Read: Sec. 22-50 Curfew For Minors
Summary: This ordinance establishes and regulates curfews for minors of different ages.

Sec. 22-257 Loitering by Minors
Click To Read: Sec. 22-257 Loitering by Minors
Summary: This statute prohibits the loitering of minors.

Section III: Michigan Hotlines & Other Helpful Resources

Michigan Abuse Hot Line: 855-444-3911;
To report known or suspected child abuse, neglect, or abandonment; and known or suspected abuse, neglect, or exploitation of a vulnerable adult.

Report Human Trafficking to Michigan Law Enforcement:: 888-373-7888

National Reporting Hot Line Recommendations:
Homeland Security Human Trafficking Hotline: 1-866-347-2423
Immigration and Customs Enforcement Hotline: 1-866-DHS-2-ICE

Phone 517-335-7622
email: [email protected]

Lansing
G. Mennen Williams Building
525 W. Ottawa Street
P.O. Box 30212
Lansing MI, 48909

Detroit
Cadillac Place, 10th Floor
3030 W. Grand Boulevard, Suite 10-200
Detroit, MI 48202

Michigan Sex Offender Registry Search
Per the Sex Offender Registration Act, MCL 28.721et seq.,the Michigan State Police is required to develop and maintain a public registry. Click here to run a search within the registry.

Sex Offender Registry Service Number 517-284-3197

 

Michigan’s Human Trafficking Commission’s Annual Reports
Section 752.974 of Michigan’s Statutes requires the commission to compile and create an annual report regarding its mandated activities.

Michigan’s Human Trafficking Commission’s Website
Section 752.973 of Michigan’s States establishes the state’s Human Trafficking Commission. Click here to view the website.

Michigan’s Human Trafficking Commission’s 2022 Annual Report
Section 752.974 of Michigan’s Statutes requires the commission to compile and create an annual report regarding its mandated activities. Click here to view the report

Michigan’s 2022 Crime Reports
Each year, Michigan releases its annual crime report. Michigan data was “frozen” on March 1, 2023 to create the annual report for 2022. Click here to view the annual reports for 2022.

Department of Justice 2013 Presentation of Sex Trafficking Crimes in Michigan
The Department of Justice created a presentation for Child Sex Trafficking Crimes specifically in Michigan. This presentation includes examples of crimes prosecuted and addresses common myths regarding sex trafficking. Click here to view the presentation.

For Freedom of Information Act Requests : 517-241-1934

15.231 Short title; public policy
Click To Read: 15.231 Short title; public policy.
Summary:
This act establishes Michigan’s Freedom of Information Act and notes the public policy behind doing so is, “that all persons, except those persons incarcerated in state or local correctional facilities, are entitled to full and complete information regarding the affairs of government and the official acts of those who represent them as public officials and public employees, consistent with this act. It further states that the people shall be informed so that they may fully participate in the democratic process.”

15.232 Definitions
Click To Read: 15.232 Definitions.
Summary: This statute provides the definitions for key terms used throughout the Freedom of Information Act.

15.233 Public records; request requirements; right to inspect, copy, or receive; subscriptions; forwarding requests; file; inspection and examination; memoranda or abstracts; rules; compilation, summary, or report of information; creation of new public record; certified copies.
Click To Read: 15.233 Public records; request requirements; right to inspect, copy, or receive; subscriptions; forwarding requests; file; inspection and examination; memoranda or abstracts; rules; compilation, summary, or report of information; creation of new public record; certified copies.
Summary: This statute provides that, with some exceptions, a person has a right to inspect, copy or receive copies of the requested public record of the public body. It further outlines the rules and requirements for obtaining a freedom of information act request including the requirements of the public body.

15.234 Fee; limitation on total fee; labor costs; establishment of procedures and guidelines; creation of written public summary; detailed itemization; availability of information on website; notification to requestor; deposit; failure to respond in timely manner; increased estimated fee deposit; deposit as fee; failure to pay or appeal deposit; request abandoned.
Click To Read: 15.234 Fee; limitation on total fee; labor costs; establishment of procedures and guidelines; creation of written public summary; detailed itemization; availability of information on website; notification to requestor; deposit; failure to respond in timely manner; increased estimated fee deposit; deposit as fee; failure to pay or appeal deposit; request abandoned.
Summary: This statute provides limits and requirements around the fees charged for a public records search, for the necessary copying of a public record for inspection, or for providing a copy of a public record. It further requires the public body to establish procedures and guidelines to implement this act and specific rules for doing so. The statute also provides rules for public bodies who directly or indirectly administers or maintains an official internet presence.

15.235 Request to inspect or receive copy of public record; response to request; failure to respond; damages; contents of notice denying request; signing notice of denial; notice extending period of response; action by requesting person; law enforcement records management system; alternate responses.
Click To Read: 15.235
Request to inspect or receive copy of public record; response to request; failure to respond; damages; contents of notice denying request; signing notice of denial; notice extending period of response; action by requesting person; law enforcement records management system; alternate responses.
Summary: This statute provides the guidelines for the public body when responding to a request under the Freedom of information act. The statute also outlines the procedure for denying a request and including notice requirements and requirements for public bodies that maintain a law enforcement records management system.

15.236 FOIA coordinator
Click To Read: 15.236 FOIA coordinator.
Summary: This statute requires that public bodies specified in the statute establish a FOIA coordinator and outlines what the coordinator is responsible for.

5.240a Fee in excess of amount permitted under procedures and guidelines or MCL 15.234
Click To Read: 5.240a Fee in excess of amount permitted under procedures and guidelines or MCL 15.234.
Summary: This statute provides the procedures and guidelines for when a public body requires a fee that exceeds the amount permitted under the Freedom of Information Act.

15.240b Failure to comply with act; civil fine
Click To Read: 15.240b Failure to comply with act; civil fine.
Summary: This statute provides that, “if the court determines that a public body willfully and intentionally failed to comply with this Act or otherwise acted in bad faith, the court shall order the public body to pay, in addition to any other award or sanction, a civil fine of not less than $2,500.00 or more than $7,500.00 for each occurrence.” It also provides what information courts can consider when determining the amount of the fine.

15.241 Matters required to be published and made available by state agency; form of publications; effect of matter not published and made available; exception; action to compel compliance by state agency; order; attorneys’ fees, costs, and disbursements; jurisdiction; definitions.
Click To Read: 15.241 Matters required to be published and made available by state agency; form of publications; effect of matter not published and made available; exception; action to compel compliance by state agency; order; attorneys’ fees, costs, and disbursements; jurisdiction; definitions.
Summary: This statute determines what state agencies are required to make public and the manner in which they are to be made available. It further provides what information is exempt from this statute.

15.243 Exemptions from disclosure; public body as school district, intermediate school district, or public school academy; withholding of information required by law or in possession of executive office.
Click To Read: 15.243 Exemptions from disclosure; public body as school district, intermediate school district, or public school academy; withholding of information required by law or in possession of executive office.
Summary: This statute provides what information is exempt from disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act.

15.243a Salary records of employees or other officials of institutions of higher education, school district, intermediate school district, or community college available to the public on request.
Click To Read: 15.243a Salary records of employee or other official of institution of higher education, school district, intermediate school district, or community college available to public on request.
Summary: This statute provides that,” salary records of employees or other official of institutions of higher education, school districts, intermediate school districts or community colleges are available to the public upon request.”

15.244 Separation of exempt and nonexempt material; design of public record; description of material exempted.
Click To Read: 15.244 Separation of exempt and nonexempt material; design of public record; description of material exempted.
Summary: This statute provides that when a public record contains material which is not exempt under section 13 as well as material that is exempt from disclosure, the public body is required to separate what is exempt and non exempt and make the non-exempt material available for copying and examination.

15.240 Options by requesting person; appeal; actions by public body; receipt of written appeal; judicial review; civil action; venue; de novo proceeding; burden of proof; private view of public record; contempt; assignment of action or appeal for hearing, trial, or argument; attorneys’ fees, costs, and disbursements; assessment of award; damages.
Click To Read: 15.240 Options by requesting person; appeal; actions by public body; receipt of written appeal; judicial review; civil action; venue; de novo proceeding; burden of proof; private view of public record; contempt; assignment of action or appeal for hearing, trial, or argument; attorneys’ fees, costs, and disbursements; assessment of award; damages.
Summary: This statute provides options for the requesting person when a public body denies all or a portion of a freedom of information request as well as when a court determines that a public body has violated this act by refusing to disclose information.


Enhanced Access to Public Records Act

15.442 Definitions
Click To Read: 15.442 Definitions
Summary: This statute provides the definitions for key terms used throughout the Enhanced Access to Public Records Act.

15.443 Enhanced access to public record; powers of public body; collection of fee from third party; sharing access among public bodies; availability of public record; adoption of policy; specific public record.
Click To Read: 15.443
Enhanced access to public record; powers of public body; collection of fee from third party; sharing access among public bodies; availability of public record; adoption of policy; specific public record.
Summary: This statute provides that, after authorization from the governing body, a public body can provide enhanced access for the inspection, copying, or purchasing of a public record that is not confidential or otherwise exempt by law from being disclosed. This statute further provides additional regulations surrounding the enhanced access including fee information and notes that public bodies are not required to enact an enhanced access policy.

15.444 Elected or appointed individual; ownership interest or compensation from sold information; prohibition
Click To Read: 15.444 Elected or appointed individual; ownership interest or compensation from sold information; prohibition
Summary: This statute provides that individuals who are elected or appointed to a board or governing body of a city, village, township or county cannot accept compensation from a person who sells information obtained from a public record.


Electronic Open Access To Government Act

15.451 Short title; information to be included on the state website
Click To Read: 15.451 Short title; information to be included on state website
Summary: This statute requires that, “the department of technology, management, and budget shall include links on this state’s website to function and contact information for each executive branch department and each major division or subunit within the department.” The information shall be accessible to the public at no cost. It further provides the criteria that the each page created must meet as well as information required under this act for each department.

Section IV: Federal Laws

The following is a list of federal laws that relate to human and child trafficking with links and short summaries.

Summary: The Act created Title IV-E, or the program that gives funding for state foster care systems.

42 U.S.C. Ch. 7 and Title IV-E

Summary: The Act establishes a national center for child abuse and neglect and a National Clearinghouse on child abuse programs.

42 U.S.C. Ch. 67 Section 5101, 5102, and 5104

Summary: The act makes the Transportation with Intent to Engage in Prostitution, Promotion or Facilitation of Prostitution, Coercion and Enticement, and the Transportation of Minors to Engage in Prostitution a crime.

18 U.S.C. Ch. 117 Sections 2421 to 2423

Summary: The Act allows the AG to collect DNA samples from convicted Sex Offenders and Abusers.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 407 Sections 40702 and 40706

Summary: The law established Federal standards for the removal and placement of Native children as well as with termination of parental rights to protect the best interests of Native American children and keep them connected to their families and Tribes.

The law delineates the roles of State and Tribal governments in child welfare cases involving children who are members of or eligible for membership in Federally recognized Tribes.

25 U.S.C. Ch. 21

Summary: Federal Sex crimes include Enticement into Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, Forced Labor, Trafficking with respect to Involuntary Services, Sex Trafficking of Children, Illegally Withholding Documents in furtherance of Sex Crimes, Benefitting Financially from Trafficking Persons, and Attempting to and Conspiring to commit Child Sex Trafficking.

18 U.S.C. Ch. 77 Sections 1583, 1584, 1589, 1590, 1591, 1592, 1593A, 1594, 1596

Remedies for Victims of Sex Crimes include Restitution and injunctions.

18 U.S.C. Ch. 77 Sections 1593, 1595, 1595A

Summary: The Act provides law enforcement agencies with requirements when reporting missing children.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 413 Section 41307 and 41308

Summary: The act creates a national criminal history background check system where each State, Commonwealth, and Territory is required to report child abuse and indexes information for purposes of childcare providers.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 401

Summary: The act allows the creation of an Interstate Compact to better share criminal history records and encourages States to share data with the FBI in order to exchange criminal history records for noncriminal justice purposes allowed by laws.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 403 Sections 40315 and 40316

Summary: The act makes Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Selling or Buying Children, Failure to Report Child Abuse and certain activities relating to Sexual Exploitation of Minors and Possession of material that contains Child Pornography a crime.

18 U.S.C. Ch. 110 Sections 2251 to 2253

Summary: The act added a new chapter in Title 18 containing several new sex crimes, among which included Aggravated Sexual Abuse, Abusive Sexual Contact, and Sexual Abusive of a Minor or Ward of the State.

18 U.S.C. Ch. 109A Sections 2241, 2242, 2243, 2244, 2245, 2247

Remedies for Sex Abuse Act violations include Restitution, Criminal and Civil Forfeiture of Assets, and Civil Remedies for Personal Injuries.

18 U.S.C. Ch. 109A Section 2248; Ch. 110 Sections 2253, 2254, 2255, and 2259

Summary: The act created a National and State Sex Offender Registry and created different tiers of sex offenders. The Act also made it a crime for a convicted Sex Offender to fail to register.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 209

Summary: The Act creates subcategories for State sex crimes and human trafficking for reporting purposes.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 413 Section 41309

Summary: The Act requires all federal crimes shall be catalogued in the Uniform Crime Reports.

34 U.S.C. Ch. 413 Section 41303 and 41304

Summary: The act authorized the President to create an Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking and authorize the Secretary of State to cooperate with foreign countries. 7103(a) and (b). The President also has authority to create and establish international economic initiatives to enhance economic opportunity for the victims of trafficking as a means to deter trafficking.

22 U.S.C. Ch. 78 Section 7101, 7103

Section V: Federal & State-by-State Resources

 
Government agencies must publish certain information to the Federal Register regarding their organizational structure, governmental procedures, rules of procedures, substantive rules of general applicability, and all revisions, repeals, or amendments of any such rules. 
 
Government agencies must make available final administrative opinions, statements of policy and adopted interpretations, administrative staff manual and instructions, copies of all records, and a general index of all records.
 
Government agencies must state to requestor the time, place, fees, and procedures of accessing public records. Agencies must make reasonable actions to maintain its records.
 
Government agencies must determine whether or not to comply with a FOIA no longer than 20 days (excluding weekends and federal holidays). If a government agency does not comply with a FOIA request within 20 days, the requestor is deemed to have exhausted administrative remedies. Upon any determination by an agency to comply with a request for records, the records shall be made promptly available to such person making such request. Most government agencies fail to meet the 20-day requirement. Because no jurisdiction has the power to review until after the 20-day requirement is expired, most FOIA requests end up in court resulting in courts ordering agencies to hand over the requested information unless it contains exempted material. 
 
Materials Exempted from FOIA Requests:
  1. Material that is classified as Top Secret in the name of national defense or foreign policy by Executive Order.
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Any fees accumulated for federal FOIA requests must be reasonable in relation to the actions to acquire the requested information. 
State
Child Abuse Contact Information/Hotlines
Child Trafficking Hotlines

Alaska

800-478-4444

Arizona

888-SOS-CHILD (1-888-767-2445)

Arkansas

800-482-5964

California

800-422-4453

Colorado

844-264-5437

Connecticut

800-842-2288

Delaware

800-292-9582

Florida

1-800-96-ABUSE (1-800-962-2873)

Georgia

855-422-4453

866-363-4842

Hawaii

Oahu: 808-832-5300 Hawaii Island, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Kauai: 888-380-3088

Oahu: 808-832-1999 Hawaii Island, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Kauai: 888-398-1188

Idaho

855-552-5437

208-630-6601

Illinois

800-252-2873

888-373-7888

Indiana

800-800-5556

888-373-7888

Iowa

800-362-2178

515-725-6330

Kansas

800-922-5330

888-373-7888

Kentucky

877-597-2331

888-373-7888

Louisiana

855-452-5437

800-434-8007

Maine

800-452-1999

888-373-7888

Maryland

800-917-7383

888-373-7888

Massachusetts

800-792-5200

617-963-2223

Michigan

855-444-3911

888-373-7888

Minnesota

By County

877-996-6222

Misssissippi

888-222-8000

888-373-7888

Missouri

800-392-3738

888-373-7888

Montana

866-820-5437

833-406-7867

Nebraska

800-652-1999

833-757-5665

Nevada

Washoe: 833-900-7233, Clark: 702-399-0081, All other counties: 833-571-1041

888-373-7888

New Hampshire

Everybody: 603-271-6562, In-state: 800-894-5533

800-277-5570

New Jersey

877-652-2873

855-363-6548

New Mexico

855-333-7233

888-373-7888

New York

800-342-3720

800-771-7755

North Carolina

888-373-7888

North Dakota

833-958-3500

888-373-7888

Ohio

855-642-4453

888-373-7888

Oklahoma

800-522-3511

855-617-2288

Oregon

855-503-7233

888-373-7888

Pennsylvania

800-932-0313

888-373-7888

Rhode Island

800-742-4453

888-373-7888

South Carolina

888-227-3487

888-373-7888

South Dakota

877-244-0864

888-373-7888

Tennessee

877-237-0004

855-558-6484

Texas

800-252-5400

888-373-7888

Utah

855-323-3237

801-200-3443

Vermont

800-649-5285

888-984-8626

Virginia

In-state: 804-786-8535 Out-of-State: 800-552-7096

833-463-6448

Washington

6 Different Regional Numbers:
Region 1: 800-557-9671, Region 2: 855-420-5888, Region 3: 866-829-2153, Region 4: 800-609-8764, Region 5: 888-713-6115, Region 6: 866-764-2233

888-373-7888

West Virginia

800-352-6513

888-373-7888

Wisconsin

888-373-7888

Wyoming

888-373-7888

The matrix below provides state laws, which include the state’s definition of grooming.

State
Statute
Name
Online/In-person/Both
Felony/ Misdemeanor
Penalty

Alabama

Electronic Solicitation of a Child

On-line

Class B Felony

Imprisoned between 2 and 20 years in prison

Alaska

Enticement of a Minor; Unlawful Exploitation of a Minor

Both

Class A Felony

Fined up to $250k and up to 20 years in prison

Arizona*

Luring a Minor for Sexual Exploitation

Unspecified

Class 3 Felony

Imprisoned between 2.5 to 7 years in prison

Arkansas

Sexual Grooming a Child

Both

Class D Felony or Class A Misdemeanor

Felony: Fined up to $10k and up to 6 years in prison
Misdemeanor: Fined up to $2,500 and up to 1 year in jail

California

§ 647.6

Miscellaneous Offenses

Unspecified

Misdemeanor

Fined up to $5k, up to 1 year in jail, or both

Colorado*

§ 18-6-403

Sexual Exploitation of a Child

Unspecified

Class 3, 4, or 5 Felony

Class 3: Fined up to $750k and imprisoned up between 10 and 32 years
Class 4: Imprisonment between 2 to 6 years and fined between $2k and $500k
Class 5: Imprisonment between a year and 18 months a fined between $1k and $100k

Connecticut

§ 53a-90a

Enticing a Minor

Online

Class B, C, or D Felony

Class B: Fined up to $15k and imprisoned between 1 and 40 years
Class C: Fined up to $10k and imprisoned between 1 and 10 years
Class D: Fined up to $5k and imprisoned between 1 and 5 years

Delaware

§ 1112A

Sexual Solicitation of a Child

Both

Class B or C Felony

Class B: Between 2 and 25 years in prison
Class C: Up to 15 years in prison

Florida

Prohibited Computer Usage

Online

Second or Third-Degree Felony

Second-Degree: Fined up to $10k and up to 15 years in prison
Third-Degree: Fined up to $5k and up to 5 years in prison

Georgia

Child Exploitation

Online

Felony

Fined up to $25k and imprisoned between 1 and 20 years

Hawaii*

Electronic Enticement

Online

Class B or C Felony

Class B: Imprisoned up to 10 years
Class C: Imprisoned up to 10 years

Idaho

Enticing a Child through use of the Internet or other Communication Device

Online

Felony

Imprisoned up to 15 years

Illinois

§ 5/11-25

Grooming

Online

Class 4 Felony

Between 1 and 3 years in prison

Indiana

Inappropriate Communication with a child

In-person

Level 6 Felony or Class A or B Misdemeanor

Felony: Between 6 months in jail and 2.5 years in prison
Misdemeanor: Up to 1 year in jail and fined up to $5k (based on Class A misdemeanor)

Iowa

§ 728.12

Sexual Exploitation of a Minor

Unspecified

Class C or D Felony

Fined up to $50k and any other appropriate sentence

Kansas

§ 21-5510

Sexual Exploitation of a Child

Unspecified

Off-Grid Person, Severity Level 3 or 5 person Felony

Level 3: Imprisoned between 55 and 247 months
Level 5: Imprisoned between 31 and 136 months
Off-grid: Death or Life in prison

Kentucky

§ 510.155

Unlawful use of electronic means to induce a minor

Online

Class C or D Felony

Imprisoned between 5 and 10 years

Louisiana

§ 14:81.3

Computer-aided Solicitation of a Minor

Online

Felony

Fined up to $10k and imprisoned up to 20 years

Maine

§ 259-A

Solicitation of a Child

Both

Class C or D Crime (Felony or Misdemeanor)

Class C (Felony): Imprisoned up to 5 years and fined up to $5k
Class D Misdemeanor: Up to 1 year in jail and fined up to $2k

Maryland

§ 3-324

Computer-aided Solicitation of a Minor

Both

Felony

Fined up to $25k or imprisoned up to 10 years

Massachusetts

Inducing a Minor for Sex

In-Person

Felony

Fined up to $1k, Imprisoned up to 3 years, or both

Michigan

Accosting, Enticing, or Soliciting a Minor for Immoral Purpose

Unspecified

Felony

Fined up to $4k or imprisoned up to 4 years

Minnesota

§ 609.352

Solicitation of a Child for Sex

On-line

Felony

Fined up to $10k or imprisoned up to 5 years

Mississippi

§§ 97-5-33
and 97-5-35

Exploitation of Children

Both

Felony

Fined between $50k and $500k and imprisoned between 5 and 40 years

Missouri

§ 566.151

 

Enticement of a Child

Both

Felony

Imprisoned between 5 and 30 years

Montana

§ 45-5-625

Sexual Abuse of Children

Unspecified

Felony

Fined up to $10k and imprisoned for life or up to 100 years

Nebraska

Sexual Assault using electronic communication

Online

IC or ID Felony

IC Felony: Imprisoned between 5 and 50 years in prison
ID Felony: Imprisoned between 3 and 50 years in prison

Nevada*

§ 201.560

Luring Children

Both

Category B or C Felony

Computer: Fined up to $10k and imprisoned between 1 and 10 years
Other Means: Fined up to $10k and imprisoned between 2 and 15 years

New Hampshire

§ 649-B:4

Prohibited Computer Uses

On-line

Class A or B Felony

Imprisoned between 10 and 20 years

New Jersey

§ 2C:13-6

Luring and Enticing a child

Both

Felony

Mandatory Minimum of 1/3 to ½ sentence imposed or 3 years, whichever is greater

New Mexico

Child Solicitation by Electronic Device

On-line

Second, Third, or Fourth-Degree Felony

Second-Degree: Up to 15 years in prison and fined up to $12,500
Third-Degree: Up to 6 years in prison and fined up to $5k
Fourth-Degree: Up to 10 years in prison and fined up to $5k

New York

§§ 100.08

Criminal Solicitation

Unspecified

Class E Felony

Imprisoned between 16 months and 4 years

North Carolina

§ 14-202.3

Solicitation of Child by Computer

On-line

Class G or H Felony

Class G: Imprisoned between 8 and 31 months
Class H: Imprisoned between 4 and 25 months

North Dakota

Corruption, Solicitation, Luring a Minor

Both

Class A Misdemeanor or Class B or C Felony

Class A Misdemeanor: Up to 1 year in prison and fined up to $3k
Class B Felony: Up to 10 years in prison and fined up to $20k
Class C Felony: Up to 5 years in prison and fined up to $10k

Ohio

§ 2905.05

Criminal Child Enticement

Unspecified

First-Degree Misdemeanor or Fifth-Degree Felony

Misdemeanor: Up to 180 days in jail and fined up to $1k
Felony: Imprisoned between 6 and 12 months in jail and fined up to $2,500

Oklahoma

Lewd or Indecent Proposals to Minors

Both

Felony

Imprisoned between 3 and 25 years

Oregon

§ 167.057

Luring a Minor

Unspecified

Class C Felony

Imprisoned up to 5 years, fined up to $125k, or both

Pennsylvania*

§ 6320

Sexual Exploitation of Children

Unspecified

Second-Degree Felony

Imprisoned up to 10 years and fined up to $25k

Rhode Island

§ 11-37-8.8

Indecent Solicitation of a Child

Both

Felony

Imprisoned at least 5 years (See R.I. Gen. Laws Section 11-37-8.9)

South Carolina

Solicitation of a Minor

Both

Felony

Fined up to $5k and imprisoned for up to 10 years

South Dakota

§ 22-24A-5

Solicitation of a Minor

Both

Class 4 Felony

Imprisoned up to 10 years and fined up to $20k

Tennessee

§ 39-13-528

Solicitation of a Minor

Both

One classification less than most serious crime solicited (Felony)

Example: If Class A Felony committed, punished like Class B Felony

Texas

Penal Code  Ch. 15 § 15.032 (Effective September 1, 2023); Ch. 33 § 33.021

Child Grooming; Online Solicitation of a Minor

Both

Section 33.021: Second or Third-Degree Felony
Section 15.032: Second or Third-Degree Felony

Second-Degree: Imprisoned between 2 and 20 years in prison and fined up to $10k
Third-Degree: Imprisoned between 2 and 10 years in prison and fined up to $10k

Utah

Enticement of a Minor

Online

One classification less than the illegal conduct (Felony or Misdemeanor)

Example: If First-Degree Felony committed, punished like Second-Degree Felony

Vermont

Sexual Exploitation of Children

Both

Felony

Fined up to $10k or imprisoned for up to 5 years
(See 13 V.S.A. 2825(e))

Virginia

Display of Child Pornography or Grooming Videos to a Child

Unspecified (but presumably online)

Class 6 Felony

Imprisoned between 1 to 5 years in prison

Washington*

§ 9.68A.040

Sexual Misconduct (Limited to School Employees)

Unspecified

Class B Felony

Imprisoned up to 10 years, fined up to $20k, or both

West Virginia

§ 61-3C-14b

Soliciting a Minor Through a Computer

Online

Felony

Fined up to $5k or imprisoned between 2 and 10 years

Wisconsin*

§ 942.09(4)

Representations depicting nudity

Unspecified

Class I Felony or Class A Misdemeanor

Felony: Imprisoned up to 3.5 years and fined up to $10k
Misdemeanor: Imprisoned up to 9 months in jail and fined up to $10k

Wyoming

§ 6-2-318

Soliciting to Engage in Illicit Sexual Relations

Unspecified

Felony

Imprisoned up to 5 years

*States that do not have a grooming statute or are too general to be called a grooming statute.

Source: Leah E. Kaylor, Georgia M. Winters, Elizabeth L. Jeglic & Jennifer Cilli (2022) An analysis of child sexual grooming legislation in the United States, Psychology, Crime & Law, DOI: 10.1080/1068316X.2022.2043313

The information, links, and other materials furnished by America’s Future on this website page are being furnished only for educational and informational purposes and with the understanding that America’s Future, Inc. is not engaged in rendering legal advice. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional advisor should be sought. Before relying on the information, links, or other materials on this website page, you should confirm that the materials provided are current and complete and have not been rescinded, modified, deleted, or updated otherwise.

REPORT HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Michigan Law Enforcement:
888-373-7888

Michigan Abuse Hot Line:
855-444-3911

Homeland Security Human Trafficking Hotline:
1-866-347-2423

Immigration and Customs Enforcement Hotline:
1-866-DHS-2-ICE

Learn More